Facts About Cambodia and Nursing
- Cambodia is a poor country in Southeast Asia with 80% of 14.4 million people surviving as sustenance farmers. (Cambodian Ministry of Health [MoH], 2011)
- Cambodian health remains the lowest in the Western Pacific Region and ranks 174th out of 190 countries. (World Health Organization [WHO], 2010).
- Only 12% of Cambodian homes have electricity. (Dr Karen Reed/US Ambassador Todd, Interview, 2012)
Population: 14.9 million
Average Age: 23.3 years
55 deaths/ 1,000 births
Life Expectancy: 62 years
(Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], 2012)
|Countries in SE Asia||Number Physicians/1000 people||Number Nurses/1000 people|
|Cambodia||.16/ 1,000||.61/ 1,000|
(Source: World Bank 2010
In 1979, after the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia there were only…
728 medical students
The Health System 1995 – Present
Level 1: Operational Districts Serving
100,000 – 200,000 pop Referral Hospital & Network of Health Centers
Level 2: Provincial Hospital & Provincial Health Department
Level 3: Ministry of Health, National Institutes, National Hospitals, National Programs, & Training Institutions
8 National Hospitals
73 Operational Districts
67 Referral Hospitals
823 Health Centers
There are 5 public nursing programs in Cambodia:
- Technical School for Medical Care
- Kampot RTC
- Stung Treng RTC
- Battambang RTC
- Kampong Cham RTC
Cambodian Nursing Education System
Bachelor’s Degree – 4 years (only TSMC)
Secondary Nurse- 3 years
Primary Nurse- 1 year
Secondary Nurse Midwife- 3 years
Primary Midwife- 1 year
Secondary Nurse/ Midwife- 3 + 1 (not Stung Treng RTC)
Secondary Nurse/Dental Nurse- 3 years (only Kampong Cham RTC)
Nursing education must be presented with the local cultural, religious, economic, social environmental and political influences in mind (Murray, 2005).
Challenges in Teaching Nursing
No textbooks in Khmer (major language)
- Textbooks are not available to students
- English language lessons are not available to students in 4 of the 5 nursing programs.
- Nursing programs are not internationally recognized due to limited quality and content.
- WHO has a collaborative program with the University of the Philippines to create a “bridge program”. Piloted in TSMC.
Needs Moving Forward…
- There is a need for Cambodian nurses to learn the leadership skills necessary to
foster the role of professional nursing in Cambodia’s health care system.
- There is a need to expand the current nursing education options to include
BSN and graduate programs, with access to such programs either in- country
or via distance programs.
- There is a tremendous need for masters prepared nurses to assist Cambodian nursing faculty in developing their educational delivery skill set and knowledge
- There is an opportunity for nursing programs in developing nations to work together to foster nursing education/ health care in Cambodia.
(Reference: Dr Karen Reed; Nursing in Cambodia; 2014)